"Nothing was left; by the end of the century, the assault, the goal of which was rendering the Anishinaabeg landless, was complete."

With roots traceable to the earliest people who crossed the Bering Land Bridge and would migrate into what is now North America, the Anishinaabeg would eventually settle in the land around the Great Lakes. When European settlers began moving into the area, these Native Americans often established good trading relations with them and would aid them in exploration and times of war. However, the constant encroachment on their lands and the hostilities that were included often led to armed conflict.

As the colonies gained their independence and began pushing the British out of the area, the Anishinaabeg would have the Americans to deal with. After periods of open war, early Americans devised a plan to both “civilize” the Native Americans and gain possession of their land. This was done through a series of confusing treaties, bribes, and other manipulations, all of which took unfair advantage of the Native Americans. It has only been in the last century that the government has acknowledged its duplicitous dealings and began to make amends.

Adams’ writing clearly demonstrates an intricate knowledge of the subject. The book has been intensely researched, and Adams does a great job of weaving varied and sometimes complex ideas and materials into an organized presentation. The sheer volume of details will likely appeal mostly to academic readers, but general audiences will probably find a lot to like as well. Anyone with an ardent interest in the subject, as well as those studying the expansion westward of the United States, should find this book an excellent resource.

RECOMMENDED by the US Review

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