"...the genetic imperative that triggers the Darwinian response in individuals and species also critically influences... the success or failure of economic systems."

Ladner claims the driving force of Darwinian evolution is selfishness. This inherent human trait is behind the failure of economic systems, including communism and capitalism. To illustrate this claim, the author considers the history of an ideal communist society based on Marx and Engels' theory. Beginning with the demise of its aristocracy, the author describes the birth of Communist Russia through Lenin and Stalin, and then the Soviet Union's economic fall seventy-four years later. He compares the economics of Russia's prosperity years with its post-communism years. He observes that a communist system can only survive with an authoritarian government and a strong revenue source. He also notes that during Russia's peak, the proletariat workers exhibited selfish behavior and mediocre workmanship.

Also considered is former Communist China, turned capitalist, where corrupt officials hoard wealth. This book even compares historical cultures such as those of Egypt and Rome. Unlike true socialism, capitalism, with its free enterprise, has a "growth mechanism at its heart." It is expected that future earnings can and will increase. What is unexpected is how the trait of selfishness produces a wealthy group of individuals. The author suggests that America learn from the more equitable Nordic nations and apply a wealth tax.

Ladner's total of fifty-seven years of experience in finance, positions as CFO in one business and director in another, and two advanced degrees give credence to his work. With expert insight he prefers applying Gini indicators to analyze income and wealth inequalities within a nation. His in-depth studies of Darwinism and genetics have led to his theory. The comprehensive comparison charts of national economic growth over specific years give a glimpse of Ladner's meticulous research. The thorough index is also useful for finding detailed information.

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